A Quick Guide to 9 Essential Project Documents
What is going to be more successful – a project with two or three project documents or a project with hundreds of project documents? Unfortunately, there is no “one size fits all” answer to that question; a well-run project may need either and all of the in-between.
Projects can vary in size, deliverables, life cycle, scope and that is just the tip of the variable iceberg.
What is certain is that project documentation should be clear, relevant and up to date. This will ensure all project stakeholders are on the same page at the same time. Expectations, requirements, resources, and risks should be obvious to all from the outset.
I recently asked some of my wider community for tips on project documentation and I have summarized my findings in the blog post below.
Questions to Ask Before you Start Project Documentation
Prior to kicking off the gathering or developing of project documentation, it is important you first have an understanding of why the project is happening and what type of governance the project may require.
This will determine how much and what type of project documentation is required and whether you need to gather project documentation or start developing it from scratch.
Here are some questions you may wish to ask yourself, the client or your manager:
- What are the goals and aims of the project?
- Has a project like this been completed in the past?
- If yes, are there project documents that were archived from it and where are they?
- Is there a standard project methodology that needs to be followed?
- What technology, if any, can or should be used?
- Who are the key team members and resources needed?
- What is the budget?
- What is the timeline?
- What communication is needed?
Once you have the answer to some of these questions you can then begin to gather and develop the project documents you may need to be successful with your project.
9 Essential Project Documents
1. Project Business Case
This document will provide the justification for investing in the project. It is really the kick-off document that explains why the project is taking place; the goals, objectives, and outcomes being sought.
This document could be a simple email from a client or a 50-page word document that has input from 10 project stakeholders.
Typically, the project sponsor is responsible for developing the business case, which can include an economic feasibility study.
>> Read more: How to Write a Persuasive Business Case for PPM Software
2. Project Charter
The project charter formally authorizes the project whilst giving the project manager the authority to plan, execute, and manage the project.
Building on the business case, the project charter lays out:
- Scope of the work
- Proposed timeline
- Definition of done
- Project success factors.
As such, the project charter supports communication and makes stakeholder engagement easier.
This document needs to be approved by the appropriate officer(s) in the organization.
3. RACI Matrix
No matter the project size, roles and responsibilities should be clearly defined.
The RACI Matrix is a great way to define and assign these responsibilities.
The Matrix charts who is Responsible, who is Accountable, who is Consulted, and who should be Informed for each task.
Mapping this out helps to reduce confusion, distribute workload and increase efficiency.
>> Read more: How to Increase Project Visibility with a RACI Matrix
4. Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)
A work breakdown structure is the core of project planning, resource management and helps to prevent project scope creep.
The WBS is used to organize the work into manageable sections, often measured in time, for example, two weeks.
The list starts with the required deliverables. This goal is further broken down into work packages and tasks needed to reach this objective.
By focusing on the bigger picture, the WBS ensures that no element of the project is overlooked during the planning phase.
This, in turn, makes resource allocation much easier.
>> Read more: How to Create Your Project Work Breakdown Structure
5. Risks and Issues Log
This is exactly what it says on the tin – a log of all risks and issues the project may face.
It is good practice to follow some sort of logging format; name or ID, description, impact, probability, proposed mitigation and owner or person accountable.
The RACI Matrix may make reference to the risk too.
6. Project Communications Plan
This will ensure effective communications amongst the project team and stakeholders. Sometimes it’s a simple list of dates with updates or meetings that may be needed.
Other, more complex projects require email and document policies; status meetings and automated status reporting; work, status, risks, and issues.
Having the correct communications plan will help make project decisions more efficient.
>> Read more: How to Create a Project Communication Plan
7. Change Request Management
This will help keep track of any formal additions or alterations to the agreed-upon deliverables from any of the other project documents.
Change management is challenging as project managers need to ensure that the change is sufficiently detailed and understood by all parties.
In most cases, change requests impact the project schedule.
8. Project Schedule
The project schedule determines what work needs to be done and when. It is the timeframe for completing tasks and starting others.
All work associated with a project should be scheduled.
In some cases, it is a good idea to document the planned schedule and the current schedule so that late tasks can be flagged and properly addressed.
There are tools available to do this in an automated way, including BrightWork Simple Scheduling for light scheduling needs and Microsoft Project for heavy scheduling needs.
9. Lessons Learned
This is an essential document if you or your organization ever want to repeat the project or a similar project in the future. It will help fast track the next project.
Although delivered post-project, this should be worked on throughout the project lifecycle. Recording findings at different intervals of a project will produce better quality and more factual insights.
The format and detail of this document will depend on the project governance and project management culture of the organization.
The entire project team should contribute to and agree on the lessons learned.
>> Read more: 3 Quick Steps to Capture Lessons Learned
Managing Project Documents in a SharePoint Project Site
Once you have completed the required project documents, you need a management system to make sure the team is using the right templates, and are keeping documents up-to-date.
The free SharePoint Project Management Template from BrightWork is a great way to start managing your projects – and documents – on SharePoint.
Using the document repository within the project site, bring all of your project information into one place, making it easy for the team to collaborate and work on their tasks – regardless of location or time zone.
Once you have downloaded and installed the template, click ‘add documents’ on the ‘Getting Started’ tiles:
Simply click ‘new document’ to upload the relevant file.
Continue to add project documents as needed:
Editor’s Note: This post was originally published in April 2017 and has been updated for freshness, accuracy, and comprehensiveness.