First of all, I want to examine the different types of strategic change an organization can face before identifying frameworks for implementing change.
Balogun & Hope Hailey (2008) put forward four different classification of change that maps the extent of the change required and nature (or speed) with which the change is to be achieved (Figure 1).
The strength of Balogun & Hope Hailey’s model lies in its recognition of the complexity of change and the need for change designs to be context sensitive. Because the framework is context sensitive it can be used to understand the most appropriate approach for change even if the context that it will be applied is different to what was originally envisioned.
An organization’s vision can drive the company strategy, therefore the focus for change should be aligning the company culture with this strategy. To that extent, based on the different types of strategic change, an Evolution/Adaption change type would be deemed appropriate for many organizations.
Transformational change implemented gradually through inter-related initiatives. It is where cultural change is required but this can be accomplished over time.
Change undertaken to realign the way in which the organization operates and implemented in a series of steps. It can be accommodated within the existing culture and can occur incrementally.
Transformational change that occurs via simultaneous initiatives on many fronts. It is more likely to be forced and reactive and involves fundamental changes in both strategy and culture.
Change undertaken to realign the way in which the organization operates with many initiatives implemented simultaneously. It involves rapid change but without fundamentally changing the culture.
The next step is to identify a framework for implementing this change effectively. John Kotter (2012 p.46) examined companies with traditional hierarchies and processes that are optimized for day-to-day business but are unable to handle the challenges of strategic change.
Kotter proposes an 8 step process where organizations can avoid failure and become adept at change and states “by improving their ability to change, organizations can increase their chances of success, both today and in the future. Without this ability to adapt continuously, organizations cannot thrive”.
The key benefits of Kotter’s model are that the steps are clear and easy to understand and give guidance to the process and he makes the focus on buy-in of employees as the focus for success. When applying Kotter’s framework to changing the culture in an organization, it would break down the 8 steps as follows:
1. Create a sense of urgency
This urgency starts at the top of the organization and the management team need to acknowledge and reinforce the message to their staff.
2. Build and maintain guiding teams
The core of this strategy is the guiding teams which are led by the management team who maintain the message for the opportunity and should identify key members of their staff to support the message.
3. Get the vision right
Develop change initiatives around the company’s vision that are designed to capitalize on the opportunity for successful growth. This enables everyone in the organization to contribute to the opportunity.
4. Communicate the vision to create buy-in
If done correctly and perhaps with creativity, such communications will attract employees to buy into the ambition of the opportunity and share their commitment to it.
5. Accelerate movement and enable action
Accelerate movement towards the opportunity by enabling the team to work together on the vision and removing any barriers blocking the opportunity.
6. Celebrate short-term wins
The strategy won’t last long without confirmation that its decision and actions are actually benefiting the organization. Celebrating short-term wins will demonstrate proof of the strategy to skeptics.
7. Never let up
Maintain the urgency and keep learning as you go along. Continue to carry through on strategic initiatives while creating new ones to adapt to shifting business environments.
8. Make it stick
No strategic initiative, big or small, is complete until it has been incorporated into day-to-day activities and institutionalized into the company culture.
Balogun, J., & Hailey, V. H. (2008) ‘Exploring strategic change’. Pearson Education.
Kotter, J. (2012), ‘How the most innovative companies capitalize on today’s rapid-fire strategic challenges–and still make their numbers’. Harvard Business Review, 90(11), 43-58.